早产儿语言发展的影响因素及其干预对策
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作者单位:

1)上海交通大学人文学院,上海 200030;2)南通大学附属常州儿童医院儿童健康研究中心,常州 213003

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基金项目:

国家社会科学基金(23CYY042) 资助项目。


Factors Influencing The Language Development of Preterm Infants and Their Intervention Strategies
Author:
Affiliation:

1)School of Humanities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China;2)Children’s Health Research Center, Changzhou Children’s Hospital of Nantong University, Changzhou 213003, China

Fund Project:

This work was supported by a grant from National Social Science Foundation of China (23CYY042).

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    摘要:

    早产儿的语言发展受到多种因素的影响,可能导致他们在词汇、语法、语音等方面出现发展滞后或障碍。本文首先简述了影响早产儿语言发展的生物学和环境因素的研究进展,其中生物学因素包括早产程度、体重和性别、新生儿发病率和疾病严重程度等,环境因素则包括新生儿重症监护室的环境、家庭中的语言环境和社会因素等。在明确这些影响因素的基础上,本文强调了早期评估和早期干预是优化早产儿语言发育效果的关键步骤,并分析了具体的干预对策,例如生理和神经干预、优化新生儿重症监护室(NICU)环境、增强家庭语言互动、多学科合作和社会支持等。此综述旨在探讨影响早产儿语言发展的各种因素,并总结出有效的早期干预措施,为其提供更为全面的语言发展支持。

    Abstract:

    Preterm infants, born before 37 weeks of gestation, represent a significant portion of newborns globally, many of whom experiencing long-term neurodevelopmental disorders. Language development anomalies are common among preterm infants, often leading to deficits in vocabulary, grammar, phonetics, and semantics, which can persist into adolescence and adulthood. Given these complexities, these developmental challenges necessitate a deeper understanding of the influencing factors and the importance of early intervention. Biological factors such as the degree of prematurity, birth weight, and gender significantly impact language development. Specifically, shorter gestational age and lower birth weight are associated with language difficulties, manifesting in restricted vocabulary, syntax, and grammatical complexity. In addition, the severity of neonatal illnesses, including intracranial hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, critically impact cognitive and language development. Equally important, sensory systems, particularly vision and hearing, are also crucial for language acquisition, for example, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may increase the risk of language disorders. Environmental factors also play a vital role in language development of preterm infants. The environment within neonatal intensive care units (NICU), while important for the survival of preterm infants, can inadvertently impose sensory challenges, thereby influencing neurodevelopmental outcomes, including language skills. Beyond the NICU environment, the domestic setting and familial interactions emerge as crucial determinants. Variables such as the parental educational background and socioeconomic status substantially influence the extent and quality of language exposure, thus shaping the linguistic development of preterm infants. Addressing these challenges requires comprehensive early intervention strategies. This includes deploying a range of early evaluation tools, encompassing standardized language development scales and observational techniques, to promptly identify infants at risk of language delays. Recent advances in non-invasive brain imaging techniques, such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have opened new horizons in early detection and intervention planning, providing critical insights into the neurodevelopmental status of these infants. Intervention strategies are diverse and integrate physiological and neurological approaches, environmental modifications, and family-centric practices. Physiologically, addressing sensory impairments and nutritional needs is fundamental to fostering robust language development. This involves interventions like sensory stimulation therapies and nutritional supplements rich in essential brain-development nutrients. Additionally, environmental optimization, particularly in NICU settings, to replicate the protective conditions of womb is crucial for enhancing language learning. Strategies include controlled auditory and visual stimulation and implementing developmental care models. Furthermore, family involvement is equally important. Encouraging active parental engagement and fostering language-enriched interactions are crucial. Notably, innovative approaches such as music therapy have shown promise in enhancing auditory processing and language skills. These interventions wtilize the infant brain’s neuroplasticity, combining auditory stimulation with social interaction, thereby enriching the developmental environment for preterm infants. In summary, the language development in preterm infants is shaped by an intricate interplay of biological and environmental factors, requiring a multifaceted and early intervention approach. As our understanding evolves, the integration of medical, educational, and social services will be critical in providing holistic support for the healthy development of these infants. Future research efforts should aim to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of language development in preterm infants and to refine intervention strategies to ensure more effective long-term outcomes.

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洪恬,张琴芬,范娇娇.早产儿语言发展的影响因素及其干预对策[J].生物化学与生物物理进展,2024,51(6):1292-1304

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  • 收稿日期:2023-08-29
  • 最后修改日期:2024-05-11
  • 接受日期:2023-12-18
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-06-25
  • 出版日期: 2024-06-20